Dr Praveen Ramachandra
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Thyroid clinic 

The Dia plus clinic provide comprehensive, coordinated and streamlined care for patients with thyroid and parathyroid diseases.  Our endocrinologists are highly skilled, internationally recognized, and work very closely together to provide collaborative medical care.

 

CONDITIONS WE TREAT

  • Thyroid nodules
  • Goiters
  • Hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease, toxic goiter)
  •  Hypothyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Parathyroid tumors
  • Thyroid cancer

 

Thyroid nodules

Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid, a small gland located at the base of your neck, just above your breastbone.The great majority of thyroid nodules aren't serious and don't cause symptoms. Thyroid cancer accounts for only a small percentage of thyroid nodules.You often won't know you have a thyroid nodule until your doctor discovers it during a routine medical exam. Some thyroid nodules, however, may become large enough to be visible or make it difficult to swallow or breathe.

Treatment options depend on the type of thyroid nodule you have.

 

Goiters

Goiter (GOI-tur) is an abnormal enlargement of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below your Adam's apple. Although goiters are usually painless, a large goiter can cause a cough and make it difficult for you to swallow or breathe.

The most common cause of goiter worldwide is a lack of iodine in the diet. In the United States, where the use of iodized salt is common, a goiter is more often due to the over- or underproduction of thyroid hormones or to nodules that develop in the gland itself.

Treatment depends on the size of the goiter, your symptoms and the underlying cause. Small goiters that aren't noticeable and don't cause problems usually don't need treatment.

 

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability.

Several treatment options are available if you have hyperthyroidism. Doctors use anti-thyroid medications and radioactive iodine to slow the production of 

thyroid hormones. Sometimes, treatment of hyperthyroidism involves surgery to remove all or part of your thyroid gland. Although hyperthyroidism can be serious if you ignore it, most people respond well once hyperthyroidism is diagnosed and treated.

 

Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of certain important hormones.

Women, especially those older than age 60, are more likely to have hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism upsets the normal balance of chemical reactions in your body. It seldom causes symptoms in the early stages, but, over time, untreated hypothyroidism can cause a number of health problems, such as obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease.

The good news is that accurate thyroid function tests are available to diagnose hypothyroidism, and treatment of hypothyroidism with synthetic thyroid hormone is usually simple, safe and effective once you and your doctor find the right dose for you.

 

 

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to overactivity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck.

The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps maintain an appropriate balance of calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues that depend on calcium for proper functioning.

Two types of hyperparathyroidism exist. In primary hyperparathyroidism, an enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes overproduction of the hormone, resulting in high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), which can cause a variety of health problems. Surgery is the most common treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs as a result of another disease that initially causes low levels of calcium in the body and over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur.

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 

Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon condition in which your body secretes abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH plays a key role in regulating and maintaining a balance of your body's levels of two minerals — calcium and phosphorus.

The low production of PTH in hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally low ionized calcium levels in your blood and bones and to an increase of serum phosphorus.

Treatment for hypoparathyroidism consists of taking supplements to normalize your calcium and phosphorus levels. Depending on the cause of your hypoparathyroidism, you'll likely need to take supplements for life.

 

Parathyroid tumors

Parathyroid tumours can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). Most tumours of the parathyroid gland are benign. Cancer of the parathyroid gland is extremely rare. This information is about cancer of the parathyroid glands.

A tumour of the parathyroid gland may cause overproduction of the hormone that controls the level of calcium in the body. This hormone is called parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone.

 

If parathyroid hormone is being overproduced, it may cause some of the following signs and symptoms:

  •  high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcaemia)
  • muscle weakness
  • pain in the bones
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite / weight loss
  • constipation
  • difficulty sleeping
  • feeling run down and tired
  • inflammation of the pancreas
  •  stomach ulcer
  • kidney stones
  •  feeling nervous
  • Thinning of the bones (osteoporosis).

Many people with tumours of the parathyroid glands will have no symptoms and some people may only have one or two. These symptoms may also be caused by conditions other than cancer, but it's important to get them checked.

 

Thyroid cancer

The thyroid is a gland at the base of the throat near the windpipe. It is shaped like a butterfly, with a right lobe and a left lobe. A thin piece of tissue connects the two lobes. The thyroid makes hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight.

There are four types of thyroid cancer. These are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Papillary is the most common type of thyroid cancer.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer is hard to cure with current treatment. Other types of thyroid cancer can usually be cured. Being exposed to radiation to the head and neck as a child increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B syndrome can also increase the risk of thyroid cancer.