Dr Praveen Ramachandra
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Endocrinology is a branch of medicine that concerns the study of hormones (eg: insulin) and its disorders. The endocrine system consists of several glands located in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones.

The endocrine disorders are a varied group of diseases that usually occur due to hypofunctioning or hyperfunctioning of these glands.



Diabetes, the most common endocrine disorder encountered in clinical practice, occurs due to decreased secretion of insulin, a hormonal product from pancreas, an endocrine gland.



The common endocrine disorders are the following:


A. Diabetes - most common endocrine disorder

B. Thyroid disorders hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid tumors

C. Pituitary disorders pituitary tumors, raised pituitary hormone levels (e.g. Prolactin, GH, etc.), deficiency of pituitary hormones, diabetes insipidus

D. Adrenal disorders Adrenal tumors, Cushing’s syndrome, Pheochromocytoma, adrenal failure

E. Polycystic ovary syndromeand other causes of hirsuitism and virilisation

F. Male reproductive disorders Male infertility, erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism

G. Disorders of growth Growth hormone deficiency and other causes of short stature, Growth hormone excess and other causes of excessive gain in height

H. Disorders of puberty delayed puberty, precocious (premature) puberty

I. Disorders of sexual development Small penis, hidden testis, genital ambiguity, gynecomastia (development of breast tissue in males), Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome

J. Metabolic bone disorders Osteoporosis, Vitamin D deficiency, Rickets, Osteomalacia, Hyperparathyroidism

K. Obesity and overweight

L. Dyslipidemia disorders related to cholesterol, High cholesterol levels

M. Other hormonal disorders Insulinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, MEN syndrome, PGA syndrome, etc.